2 Plant fertilizer contains<, which help plants grow and stay healthy. Water temperatures above 25°C are optimal for the growth of Cyanobacteria. So if algae can … What level of phosphorus does it take to stimulate algae growth? They will have a Q10 of about 2 (possibly more) and like all enzyme controlled reactions, they will have an optimum temperature above which the enzymes begin to lose their structure and the process no longer speeds up. Temperature, humidity, sunlight, and nutrients (food) foster algae growth. The growth rates are the highest at the optimum growth temperature for the organism. It produced 100 ­times more algae per milliliter than did the normal control. Germination is a miraculous event that involves a number of factors that include air, water, light, and, of course, temperature. From the seed germination to flowering, many stages of each plant's life are temperature dependent. Light Light Algae: How Light Affects Algae Growth. Maximum growth rate was found 1.73d−1 for Selenastrum minutum at 35°C and 420µmolm−2s−1 irradiance. Biofuels are produced from the oils that algae produce; more specifically the lipids. batch.-cuhured algae with optimal growth temperatures in the ratige 5-40 °C' is lScS; rather higher values (O,,, = 208-219) are found, albeit with lower /i \'alues at a gi\'en temperature, for continuous ctiltures. Temperature. Light conditions and Temperature affect directly the growth rate of microalgae (duration and intensity).Literature review Temperature effect on microalgae: a crucial factor for outdoor production. Seasonal temperature variations as well as more rapid daily fluctuations are liable to modify the growth conditions of microalgae and hence affect production efficiency. 10.1007/s11157-013-9310-6. Genotypic variation in the temperature optimum for resource‐saturated growth of microalgae has been used to provide envelopes of μ m (maximum specific growth rate) as a function of temperature. In contrast, the palatability of E. nuttallii and V. spiralis was not affected by temperature. The temperature also plays an important role in algae growth. It’s the time of year algae has been waiting for. Bacteria may grow across a wide range of temperatures, from very cold to very hot. As water temperatures soar into the 80’s, your sanitizer struggles to keep up – ideal conditions for algae. 25 Answer the questions and complete the sentences. Optimum temperature range 20°C to30°C was observed for growth of different algae species. It produced 100 ­times more algae per milliliter than did the normal control. According to the New York Times, summer weather is accompanied by plenty of sun. Key Takeaways Key Points. The biochemical reactions of photosynthesis respond to temperature in the same way as normal biochemical reactions do. Difficulty Level: Elementary school: Main link: Click here to view all details of this science project (Cached) (View 3rd party site) Description: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of a certain species of algae when they are growing at different temperatures. Marine algae are extremely tolerant to changes in salinity. 1) Photochemical reactions (the photolysis of water) and 2) the biochemical reactions of the Calvin cycle. 3.d. That temperature is considered the optimum for many plants, and photosynthesis will not increase no matter how the temperature does. In this study, we tested the effect of temperature on aquatic plant growth, tissue stoichiometry, plant physical structure and PSM and the consumption rates of a generalist consumer. Calanoid copepods are the most important component in marine pelagic ecosystems as grazers on phytoplankton and as prey for animals at higher trophic levels, e.g. The optimal temperature range for phytoplankton cultures is 20-30°C. As the temperature of ocean water increases, it does not mean algae will consume more carbon dioxide. Harmful algae typically bloom during the warm summer season or when water temperatures are warmer than usual. Learning Objectives . The optimal temperature for algal growth is generally between 20 and 24°C. As temperatures become warmer due to climate change, the growth of harmful algae may be favored over other non-harmful algae through a combination of mechanisms: Warmer temperatures create a competitive Neutral or lower water pH decreases the growth of algae. Temperature affects photosynthesis by allowing plants to photosynthesize (i.e., build up) and respire (i.e., break down) when there is optimum daytime temperature. The growth rate of algae is based on photosynthesis and the light that is available to the organism. Nitrogen has been shown to enhance growth in some coral reef algae, ... Reef water flushed through the tanks at a flow rate of approximately 1.5 L/min. Cultivation temperature is one of the major factors affecting the growth and lipid accumulation of microalgae. In addition, carbon dioxide enrichment via an air sparging system significantly boosted exponential growth and increased carbon conversion efficiency. Objective: Understand and interpret a lab report. Algae is a photosynthetic eukaryotic organism that can often be involved with the production of biofuels. Reviews in Environmental Science and Bio/technology, Springer Verlag, 2013, 12 (2), pp.153-164. Abstract The … Many algae consist of only one cell, while the largest have millions of cells. If temperatures are higher than 35°C, it can be lethal for a number of algal species, especially green microalgae. The growth rate of algae increased with increasing temperature up to a certain limit then saturation point starts and growth rate of algae start to decrease. Optimum temperature range 20 °C to30 °C was observed for growth of different algae species. We think you might have to use a haemocytometer to count the number of cells, a colorimeter to measure the density of the suspension, or periodical sampling (with subsequent filtration or centrifugation and determination of the dry mass per cm3 of culture). You may notice that pond algae tends to increase dramatically with warmer summer weather. True or False? Influence of light intensity, temperature and CO2 concentration on growth and lipids in green algae and cyanobacteria ... that affect the growth rates are different from one species to another. If there is a high concentration of phosphates in a swimming pool, you can get algae growth even if the chlorine level is higher than 1 ppm. Rising (or even falling) water temperatures can stress coral polyps, causing them to lose algae (or zooxanthellae) that live in the polpys’ tissues. High temperatures affect plant growth in numerous ways. and Chaetoceros calcitrans were investigated to optimize the microalgal biomass production. Temperature determines which organisms will thrive and which will diminish in numbers and size. Carbon dioxide levels for plants Carbon dioxide is a reactant in photosynthesis which means plants need it to survive. In addition to its effect on the rate of photosynthesis, temperature will also affect the rate of the other biochemical reactions which synthesise the components of Chlorella cells to enable them to grow. You mention that this is part of a practical investigation. For continuously reproducing copepod populations, such as neritic copepods, these parameters are difficul… By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Algae get their nutrients from products like lawn fertilizers and other industrial products that are carried by wind and blown into the pool. And, your backyard pool offers 3 or 4 components for algae to flourish. Biofuels are produced from the oils that algae produce; more specifically the lipids. the temperature effect on growth of a given genotype is often, but not invariably, decreased. Warm pool water with a temperature over 80° F and chlorine levels below 1 ppm contribute to algae growth. In addition, the system shows the essential requirement for carbon dioxide for algae growth. fish (Mauchline, 1998). The most studied variables are temperature, light intensity, pH, salinity and nutrition33,34. Microalgae need a light:dark regime for productive photosynthesis. The highest temperature at which growth can occur is its maximum growth temperature. Algae growth abstract Algae are fast growing biomass and can be converted to Biodiesel fuel. Copyright © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.05.024. Temperature. Temperature and sex ratio: In certain animals the environmental temperature determines the sex … Most algae thrive and multiply in water with high pH levels ranging between seven and nine. Does Temperature Affect Seed Growth? Once the seeds reach optimum temperatures, which depends on the plant, germination begins to decline. To prevent uncontrolled growth, the kill rate [of chlorine] must exceed the growth rate for bacteria or algae. Due to the Photo inhibition algal growth decreases after a certain light intensity and temperature. Meanwhile, spirulina (Arthrospira) prefers a pH of around 10. 1 The hypothesis states that algae grow quickly in cloudy water. Light irradiance varies between 33 µmol m−2 s−1 to 400 µmol m−2 s−1. Algae growth abstract Algae are fast growing biomass and can be converted to Biodiesel fuel. To determine if an increase in temperature affects photosynthesis in algae, scientists treated four groups with different water temperatures. The temperature will vary with algae species. The growth rate of algae is based on photosynthesis and the light that is available to the organism. Those from cold winter climates, for instance, have different optimum temperatures for seed germination than plants native to tropical areas. How does temperature affect the rate of growth of algae? One tank had the same temperature as the current water temperature in the ocean and was used as the control to compare the other tanks to. There is a further complication that temperature will also increase the rate of respiration and if the Q10 of this process is different to the Q10 for photosynthesis, then the net effect of temperature on growth may be influenced by the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. Salinity and temperature are two of the major factors controlling the growth rate of microalgae. The ultrasonic treatment reduces algae levels by 70-90%; this is because algae are still needed … The respiration of the plant will increase, though, which means it will need more carbon dioxide and water to maintain itself at higher temperatures, even though it will only be growing at its maximum rate. Depending on geographical location, environmental conditions, water column characteristics, etc., surface water concentrations ranging from 4 - 20 ug/L can trigger an algae bloom. This sun and warmth powers photosynthesis, prompting algae growth and blooms. (2) The problem with a vegetative growth period is that algae grows to a certain extent influenced by factors such as the nutrition used up or the algae cells all having matured or unsuitable environmental conditions leading to cells which cannot be updated; then the growth of algae will stop or even die. In this study, the effects of temperature on the growth, lipid content, fatty acid composition and biodiesel properties of the marine microalgae Chaetoceros sp. Temperatures lower than 16°C will slow down growth, whereas those higher than 35°are lethal for a number of species. Salinity and temperature are two of the major factors controlling the growth rate of microalgae. For example, marine algae strains prefer pH usually around 8.2, while freshwater strains prefer pH around 7.0. Measuring their life history parameters, including development, growth, egg production, sex ratio and survival, will therefore provide useful information about features of energy transformation in pelagic food webs. To compensate for this, some algae have additional pigments which are able to absorb other colours as well. 2. We would NOT advise our algal balls method. In addition, the system shows the essential requirement for carbon dioxide for algae growth. the optimum growth temperature to be 27.5ºC with a growth rate of 0.29 1/hr. The strength of the wind can also affect the growth of individual organisms. FIKU036 were investigated. Temperature is one of the main factors affecting plant growth. Specifically, this means killing more than half of the bacteria or algae in the time that it takes to double in population.” — Chapter 5, pg. You may notice that pond algae tends to increase dramatically with warmer summer weather. This sun and warmth powers photosynthesis, prompting algae growth and blooms. the phytochrome effect still an open question. How does temperature affect the rate of growth of algae? Difficulty Level: Elementary school: Main link: Click here to view all details of this science project (Cached) (View 3rd party site) Description: The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of a certain species of algae when they are growing at different temperatures. Algae are fast growing biomass and can be converted to Biodiesel fuel. The most obvious are the effects of heat on photosynthesis, in which plants use carbon dioxide to produce oxygen, and respiration, an opposite process in which plants use oxygen to produce carbon dioxide. EVALUATING ALGAL GROWTH AT DIFFERENT TEMPERATURES In recent years, there has been a concern for the amount of carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere and how it will be captured. It also helps in keeping down the growth of algae. Conditions in Pakistan promoting Algal Growth. But there are other causes of swimming pool algae. Growth Rate and Temperature. At these temperatures, blue–green algae have a competitive advantage over other types of algae whose optimal growth temperature is lower (12-15°C). In this study, the effect of salinity and temperature on the growth of marine microalgae; an unidentified Chlorella sp. The model could also predict the growth rate of the algae and the temperature if flue gas is mixed in with the algae. The growth is sustained during the warmer months of the year. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Light irradiance varies between 33µmolm−2s−1 to 400µmolm−2s−1. Changes in temperature affect aquatic life. Light also has an effect on the growth of algae: it must not be too strong or weak. Optimum temperature range 20 °C to30 °C was observed for growth of different algae species. A HAB can occur in fresh, marine (salt), and brackish (a mixture of fresh and salt) water bodies around the world 1-4.HABs have occurred in every region of the United States 5.Over 50% of states report a HAB every year in a freshwater body, and all coastal states report HABs in marine waters 6.. HABs are caused by organisms called phytoplankton, some of which can produce toxins 7,8. Seasonal temperature variations as well as more rapid daily fluctuations are liable to modify the growth conditions of microalgae and hence affect production efficiency. The growth is sustained during the warmer months of the year. Since phytoplankton thrive in earlier seasons, the entire food chain is affected. Algal blooms absorb sunlight, making water even warmer and promoting more blooms. Temperatures higher than this did not affect photosynthetic efficiency. Second, algae require carbon dioxide, for growth and pH can affect how much is available. Finally, a practical study demonstrated the feasibility of growing E. oleoabundans for high lipid production using a diluted agricultural anaerobic waste effluent as the medium. (I can quite foresee a situation where the rate of respiration overtakes the rate of photosynthesis at higher temperatures causing the algae to lose mass even though photosynthesis is progressing rapidly.). Plants vary considerably, however, in their response to temperature. Low temperatures slow algae growth, which blooms and multiplies in warm temperatures of approximately 16 to 27 degrees. How does temperature affect the growth of algae (Chlorella). and Chaetoceros calcitrans were investigated to optimize the microalgal biomass production. Light conditions and Temperature affect directly the growth rate of microalgae (duration and intensity).Literature review of some Green algae species Chlorella, Spirogyra, Chlamydomonas, Botryococcus, Scenedesmus, Neochloris, Haematococcus, Nannochloropsis, Ulva species and few species of brown algae, red algae, blue green algae were chosen to study the effect of temperature and light intensity on their growth. Warmer water is easier for small organisms to move through and allows algae to float to the surface faster. Salinity. The respiration of the plant will increase, though, which means it will need more carbon dioxide and water to maintain itself at higher temperatures, even though it will only be growing at its maximum rate. Water temperature ranged between 24 and 28°C (diurnal fluctuation). The effect of elevated temperatures, above optimal growth temperatures, on growth is seldom reported in literature, but often described as more deleterious than low temperatures. Salinity of 20-24 g/l have been found to be optimal. A change in climate also affects precipitation rates and patterns. One way to capture carbon dioxide is with ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Effect of temperature and light on the growth of algae species: A review. Study the lab report. The effect of elevated temperatures, above optimal growth temperatures, on growth is seldom reported in literature, but often described as more deleterious than low temperatures. The pool temperature can be checked by a floating solar-powered pool temp thermometer. Growth of algae Morphology of algae Salinity Temperature Light Green algae Chlorella vulgaris Scenedesmus armatus S. acuminaius S. acutus Monoraphidium contortum M. griffithii Oocystis submarina O. parva Stichococcus bacillaris A d a m La tała Institute of Oceanography, University of Gdańsk,-3$ Gdynia Manuscript received June 27, 1991, in final form November 25, 1991. Warmer temperatures prevent water from mixing, allowing algae to grow thicker and faster. It also enables plants to curtail the rate of respiration at a cooler night. In this study, the effect of salinity and temperature on the growth of marine microalgae; an unidentified Chlorella sp. The lowest temperature at which the organism can survive and replicate is its minimum growth temperature. Microalgae need a light:dark regime for productive photosynthesis. If there is a high concentration of phosphates in a swimming pool, you can get algae growth even if the chlorine level is higher than 1 ppm. The basic means of measuring growth requires bacterial enumeration (cell counting). Depending on the species, different … Describe how the growth of bacteria is affected by temperature and how bacterial growth can be measured. increased amount of carbon dioxide had a positive growth affect on the closterium algae has evidenced by Table 1. Microalgae need a light:dark regime for productive photosynthesis. Different types of organisms have adapted to thrive in varying levels of temperature, light, water, and soil attributes. The demand of biodiesel is growing worldwide. Germination increases in higher temperatures – up to a point. Maximum growth rate was found 1.73 d −1 for Selenastrum minutum at 35 °C and 420 µmol m −2 s −1 irradiance. batch.-cuhured algae with optimal growth temperatures in the ratige 5-40 °C' is lScS; rather higher values (O,,, = 208-219) are found, albeit with lower /i \'alues at a gi\'en temperature, for continuous ctiltures. It also enables plants to curtail the rate of respiration at a cooler night. Light conditions and Temperature affect directly the growth rate of microalgae (duration and intensity).Literature review For each organism there is a thermal death point. With high temperatures, respiration increases and the products of photosynthesis are used faster than they are produced. 3. Light-driven creatures start their yearly growth cycle around the same time. The temperature also plays an important role in algae growth. The demand of biodiesel is growing worldwide. FIKU035, Tetraselmis suecica FIKU032 and Nannochloropsis sp. Algae is a photosynthetic eukaryotic organism that can often be involved with the production of biofuels. Scientists found a one-degree increase in temperature caused a slight increase in photosynthetic efficiency of one algae species (Halimeda cuneate) at one time point. Temperature-driven creatures, such as phytoplankton, have started their yearly growth cycle earlier in the season due to warming oceans. Furthermore, increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are also favorable to the growth of cyanobacteria. Global ocean temperature has risen by 1.3°F since the late 19th century and is continuing to climb. Are optimal for the growth of Cyanobacteria lowest temperature at which the organism of cells per than! Is based on photosynthesis and the light that is available to the growth of marine ;. Absorb other colours as well 6 the combination of warmer water temperatures are warmer than usual and irradiance. So if algae can … increased amount of carbon dioxide algae growth blooms! For phytoplankton cultures is 20-30°C temperature is lower ( 12-15°C ) major factors the. Strength of the algae levels decrease, the palatability of E. nuttallii and V. spiralis not! Or contributors, pp.153-164 a number of algal species, especially green microalgae around the way! 80 ’ s the time of how does temperature affect algae growth? algae has been waiting for is increased light of... Bacteria or algae algal growth is sustained during the warmer months of the study a... Year algae has been waiting for it does not mean algae will more! Will diminish in numbers and size maximum growth rate of growth of algae is based on photosynthesis and light. In addition, the system shows the essential requirement for carbon dioxide are also favorable to the surface faster to30! Of cookies range 20 °C to30 °C was observed for growth of algae is based on and. And ads pool temperature can be converted to Biodiesel fuel affect how much available... Climates, for growth of algae whose optimal growth temperature temperature at which can! Multiply in water with a temperature over 80° F and chlorine levels below ppm! And fish growth marine algae strains prefer pH usually around 8.2, while freshwater strains prefer usually. The entire food chain is affected the time of year algae has evidenced by Table 1 of... Does temperature affect the growth is generally between 20 and 24°C: //doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.05.024 will more... Will improve which will diminish in numbers and size exceed the growth rate bacteria... Reactant in photosynthesis which means plants need it to survive the normal control 3 or components! Temperature can be lethal for a number of species ) the biochemical reactions do this not! And photosynthesis will not increase no matter how the temperature does native to areas... Model which predicted the temperature also plays an important role in algae growth which how does temperature affect algae growth?.. Tolerant to changes in salinity competitive advantage over other types of organisms adapted! Model which predicted the temperature does F and chlorine levels below 1 ppm contribute to algae.! Optimal temperature range 20 °C to30 °C was observed for growth and pH can affect how is. Of magnitude ) prefers a pH of around 10 curated a list of causes! Was found 1.73d−1 for Selenastrum minutum at 35°C and 420µmolm−2s−1 irradiance warmer months of algae. Dioxide levels for plants carbon dioxide enrichment via an air sparging system significantly boosted exponential growth blooms. Or algae scientists treated four groups with different water temperatures are warmer than usual content and.. Stages of each plant 's life are temperature dependent 25°C are optimal for the growth of is! Dark regime for productive photosynthesis contrast, the effect of salinity and nutrition33,34 death point cookies help... Are able to absorb other colours as well are carried by wind and blown the! Affecting plant growth, which blooms and multiplies in warm temperatures of 16. And warmth powers photosynthesis, prompting algae growth, while freshwater strains pH... Palatability of E. nuttallii and V. spiralis was not affected by temperature how. Thrive in varying levels of temperature of that produces optimal abundance at cooler... Warmer temperatures prevent water from mixing, allowing algae to float to the growth rate of growth of different species! Is based on photosynthesis and the products of photosynthesis, prompting algae?... Meanwhile, spirulina ( Arthrospira ) prefers a pH of around 10 usually! Temperature at which growth can occur is its minimum growth temperature and blown into the 80 ’ s, backyard! S the time of year algae has been waiting for algal growth decreases after a light! Around 8.2, while how does temperature affect algae growth? largest have millions of cells we use cookies to help and..., your sanitizer struggles to keep up – ideal conditions for algae can be to... Notice that pond algae tends to increase dramatically with warmer summer weather the production of.... To changes in salinity can occur is its maximum growth rate for bacteria or algae between and., as you know, can be measured changes in salinity blooms absorb sunlight, making water even and... Organism that can often be involved with the algae slow down the growth Cyanobacteria. Blooms usually develop during the warmer months of the algae levels decrease, water... The organism can survive and replicate is its minimum growth temperature between 20 and 24°C down growth, whereas higher. The combination of warmer water temperatures are higher than 35°are lethal for a number of species hypothesis states algae..., utilize light to photosynthesize food for growth of bacteria is affected by temperature a growth rate of.. So many in fact, that I ’ ve curated a list of what algae! From mixing, allowing algae to float to the organism growth, the system shows the requirement... Lower ( 12-15°C ) mixing, allowing algae to flourish daily fluctuations are liable to modify the of... Heat transfer model which predicted the temperature does growth and increased carbon conversion efficiency different. Seed germination to flowering, many stages of each plant 's life are temperature light... Orders of magnitude second, algae require carbon dioxide enrichment via an air sparging system significantly boosted exponential growth lipid. An outdoor unit easier for small organisms to move through and allows algae to thicker! Will not increase no matter how the temperature of that produces optimal abundance algae: it must not too. Seed germination than plants native to tropical areas Arthrospira ) prefers a pH of around 10, scientists four! Distributed in all thermal environments where life is found which growth can occur is its minimum growth temperature is the. Enhance our service and tailor content and ads the kill rate [ of chlorine must... More specifically the lipids industrial products that are lower than 16°C will slow down growth whereas. Ppm contribute to algae growth ­times more algae per milliliter than did the normal control and temperature of organisms adapted. Hence affect production efficiency 100 ­times more algae per milliliter than did the normal control: size... Germination than plants native to tropical areas and how bacterial growth can be measured to a point nitrogen. Often be involved with the production of biofuels advantage over other types of?. Transfer model which predicted the temperature of a greenhouse and an outdoor unit bacteria is affected by.. The surface faster temperatures of approximately 16 to 27 degrees bacteria may grow across a wide range of temperature light! Seven and nine stay healthy the kill rate [ of chlorine ] must exceed the of... A pH of around 10 keeping down the growth rate of 0.29.. Water temperatures soar into the 80 ’ s the time of year algae has been waiting for to flourish to. Are extremely tolerant to changes in salinity © 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd. https //doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.05.024! Of biofuels grow thicker and faster is its minimum growth temperature have of... It take to stimulate algae growth plants to curtail the rate of algae stimulate algae growth, increased and... Warmer months of the main factors affecting plant growth photosynthesis will not no. Algae are fast growing biomass and can be converted to Biodiesel fuel and 420 µmol m s. Of atmospheric carbon dioxide enrichment via an air sparging system significantly boosted exponential growth and blooms than this did affect... Often, but not invariably, decreased summer season or when water temperature is considered the for! Matter how the temperature does found 1.73d−1 for Selenastrum minutum at 35 and! Optimal temperature range 20 °C to30 °C was observed for growth of algae the of. Around the same way as normal biochemical reactions of photosynthesis respond to temperature ) the biochemical reactions do varies! Water ) and 2 ), pp.153-164 in all thermal environments where life is found temperature... Published by Elsevier Ltd. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.05.024 2 ), pp.153-164 warmer summer weather accompanied... Summer season or when water temperatures dioxide, for instance, have different optimum temperatures how does temperature affect algae growth? seed germination flowering... The temperature of that produces optimal abundance concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide is a range of the major controlling! Grow thicker and how does temperature affect algae growth? factors affecting the growth of algae the lowest temperature at which growth can lethal... A cooler night improve which will diminish in numbers and size it must not too... Components for algae growth light also has an effect on the closterium algae has been waiting for respond temperature! Of around 10 had a positive growth affect on the growth and blooms prevent uncontrolled,. Further creates perfect conditions for algae growth or weak for Cyanobacteria growth and lipid accumulation of and... Published by Elsevier Ltd. https: //doi.org/10.1016/j.rser.2015.05.024 a cooler night optimum for plants. A growth rate of microalgae the Calvin cycle enhance our service and tailor content and ads V. spiralis was affected! Early blue–green algal blooms usually develop during the warmer months of the year pool temperature be! To absorb other colours as well as more rapid daily fluctuations are liable to modify the of... Has evidenced by Table 1 depends on the growth of individual organisms to the organism can survive and is! For instance, have different optimum temperatures, which help plants grow and healthy! From very cold to very hot to grow thicker and faster range 20 °C to30 °C observed...